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Killer Wave. This article is about the miniseries. For the natural phenomenon, see Rogue wave. Robert Halmi Sr.
Michael Prupas. Bruce McDonald. The third incoming wave adds to the two accumulated backwashes and suddenly overloads the ship deck with tons of water.
The phenomenon is one of various theories as to the cause of the sinking of the SS Edmund Fitzgerald on Lake Superior in November Optical sciences group, Australian National University .
Serious studies of the phenomenon of rogue waves only started after the Draupner wave and have intensified since about One of the remarkable features of the rogue waves is that they always appear from nowhere and quickly disappear without a trace.
Recent research has suggested that there could also be "super-rogue waves", which are up to five times the average sea-state. Rogue waves has now become a near universal term given by scientists to describe isolated large amplitude waves, that occur more frequently than expected for normal, Gaussian distributed, statistical events.
Rogue waves appear to be ubiquitous in nature and are not limited to the oceans. They appear in other contexts and have recently been reported in liquid helium, in nonlinear optics and in microwave cavities.
It is now universally accepted by marine researchers that these waves belong to a specific kind of sea wave, not taken into account by conventional models for sea wind waves.
In , researchers at the Australian National University proved the existence of rogue wave holes , an inverted profile of a rogue wave.
Their research created rogue wave holes on the water surface, in a water wave tank. They follow from theoretical analysis but had never been proven experimentally.
In , researchers succeeded in producing a wave with similar characteristics to the Draupner wave steepness and breaking , and proportionately greater height, using multiple wavetrains meeting at an angle of degrees.
Previous research had strongly suggested that the wave resulted from interaction between waves from different directions "crossing seas". Their research also highlighted that wave-breaking behavior was not necessarily as expected.
If waves met at an angle less than about 60 degrees, then the top of the wave "broke" sideways and downwards a "plunging breaker".
But from about 60 degrees and greater, the wave began to break vertically upwards , creating a peak that did not reduce the wave height as usual, but instead increased it a "vertical jet".
They also showed that the steepness of rogue waves could be reproduced in this manner. Finally, they observed that optical instruments such as the laser used for the Draupner wave might be somewhat confused by the spray at the top of the wave, if it broke, and this could lead to uncertainties of around 1—1.
They concluded "that the onset and type of wave breaking play a significant role and differ significantly for crossing and non-crossing waves.
Crucially, breaking becomes less crest-amplitude limiting for sufficiently large crossing angles and involves the formation of near-vertical jets".
Because the phenomenon of rogue waves is still a matter of active research, it is premature to state clearly what the most common causes are or whether they vary from place to place.
The areas of highest predictable risk appear to be where a strong current runs counter to the primary direction of travel of the waves; the area near Cape Agulhas off the southern tip of Africa is one such area; the warm Agulhas Current runs to the southwest, while the dominant winds are westerlies.
However, since this thesis does not explain the existence of all waves that have been detected, several different mechanisms are likely, with localized variation.
Suggested mechanisms for freak waves include the following:. The spatio-temporal focusing seen in the NLS equation can also occur when the nonlinearity is removed.
In this case, focusing is primarily due to different waves coming into phase, rather than any energy transfer processes.
Further analysis of rogue waves using a fully nonlinear model by R. Gibbs brings this mode into question, as it is shown that a typical wavegroup focuses in such a way as to produce a significant wall of water, at the cost of a reduced height.
A rogue wave, and the deep trough commonly seen before and after it, may last only for some minutes before either breaking, or reducing in size again.
Apart from one single rogue wave, the rogue wave may be part of a wave packet consisting of a few rogue waves. Such rogue wave groups have been observed in nature.
Bahram Jalali and other researchers at UCLA studied microstructured optical fibers near the threshold of soliton supercontinuum generation and observed rogue wave phenomena.
After modelling the effect, the researchers announced that they had successfully characterized the proper initial conditions for generating rogue waves in any medium.
Many of these encounters are only reported in the media, and are not examples of open ocean rogue waves.
Often, in popular culture, an endangering huge wave is loosely denoted as a rogue wave , while it has not been and most often cannot be established that the reported event is a rogue wave in the scientific sense — i.
München was a state-of-the-art cargo ship with multiple water-tight compartments and an expert crew. She was lost with all crew and the wreck has never been found.
The only evidence found was the starboard lifeboat, which was recovered from floating wreckage some time later. The pins had been bent back from forward to aft, indicating the lifeboat hanging below it had been struck by a wave that had run from fore to aft of the ship and had torn the lifeboat from the ship.
At the time of the inquiry, the existence of rogue waves was considered so statistically unlikely as to be near impossible.
Consequently, the Maritime Court investigation concluded that the severe weather had somehow created an 'unusual event' that had led to the sinking of the München.
The Derbyshire was an ore-bulk-oil combination carrier built in At 91, gross register tons, she was — and remains — the largest British ship ever to have been lost at sea.
The wreck was found in June The survey team deployed a remotely operated vehicle to photograph the wreck. A private report was published in that prompted the British government to reopen a formal investigation into the sinking.
The government investigation included a comprehensive survey by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution , which took , pictures of the wreck during two surveys.
The formal forensic investigation concluded that the ship sank because of structural failure and absolved the crew of any responsibility.
Most notably, the report determined the detailed sequence of events that led to the structural failure of the vessel. A third comprehensive analysis was subsequently done by Douglas Faulkner, professor of marine architecture and ocean engineering at the University of Glasgow.
His report linked the loss of the Derbyshire with the emerging science on freak waves, concluding that the Derbyshire was almost certainly destroyed by a rogue wave.
In an extreme wave was recorded impacting the Admiralty Breakwater, Alderney in the Channel Islands. This breakwater is exposed to the Atlantic Ocean.
The peak pressure recorded by a shore-mounted transducer was kilopascals [kPa] This pressure far exceeds almost any design criteria for modern ships and this wave would have destroyed almost any merchant vessel.
The deck cargo hatches on the Derbyshire were determined to be the key point of failure when the rogue wave washed over the ship. The design of the hatches only allowed for a static pressure of less than 2 metres 6.
The forensic structural analysis of the wreck of the Derbyshire is now widely regarded as irrefutable. In addition fast moving waves are now known to also exert extremely high dynamic pressure.
It is known that plunging or breaking waves can cause short-lived impulse pressure spikes called Gifle peaks. Evidence of failure by this mechanism was also found on the Derbyshire.
The bulkhead and double bottom must be strong enough to allow the ship to survive flooding in hold one unless loading is restricted. It is now widely held [ by whom?
At all. In Smith proposed that the International Association of Classification Societies IACS recommendation 34 pertaining to standard wave data be modified so that the minimum design wave height be increased to 65 feet He presented analysis that there was sufficient evidence to conclude that 66 feet Therefore, a design criterion based on 36 feet Smith has also proposed that the dynamic force of wave impacts should be included in the structural analysis.
The U. Navy historically took the design position that the largest wave likely to be encountered was Smith observed in that the navy now believes that larger waves can occur and the possibility of extreme waves that are steeper i.
The navy has not had to make any fundamental changes in ship design as a consequence of new knowledge of waves greater than There are more than 50 classification societies worldwide, each with different rules, although most new ships are built to the standards of the 12 members of the International Association of Classification Societies , which implemented two sets of Common Structural Rules; one for oil tankers and one for bulk carriers; in These were later harmonised into a single set of rules.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Killer waves. This article is about rogue waves which are best known for causing severe damage to ships in open water but which appear to be ubiquitous in nature and are not limited to the oceans.
For tsunami and tidal wave phenomena as with bores and races , see those respective articles. For other uses, see Rogue wave disambiguation.
Unexpectedly large transient ocean surface wave. It is of interest that far from ridiculing the old sailors' stories about enormous waves, modern research has confirmed that such monsters can occur, and that wave heights can exceed by an appreciable amount the maximum values which have been accepted in responsible circles.
In reference to extreme events, rogue waves and soliton theory. These are considered to be the most important discoveries in the twentieth and twenty first centuries mathematical and experimental physics.
Play media. Main article: List of rogue waves. Statoil, Tech. Retrieved Economist Magazine. September 17, Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved April 16, BBC News.
July 22, Retrieved May 22, Journal of Physical Oceanography. Bibcode : JPO March Geophysical Research Letters. Bibcode : GeoRL.. United States Department of Commerce.
Retrieved 29 January They cannot be felt aboard ships, nor can they be seen from the air in the open ocean. Retrieved 15 January The Commission.
Retrieved October 8, Martin's Press. Dumont d'Urville, in his narrative, expressed the opinion that the waves reached a height of 'at least 80 to feet'.
In an era when opinions were being expressed that no wave would exceed 30 feet, Dumont d'Urville's estimations were received, it seemed, with some scepticism.
Retrieved 26 March Santos 3 October Maritime Technology and Engineering. CRC Press. Archived from the original PDF on February 21, Journal of the Institute of Navigation.
Oceanography: Contemporary Readings in Ocean Sciences. Oxford University Press. Grant Gross 1 March Prentice Hall.
Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Retrieved 12 September When we first saw the data, we were convinced it had to be a technological error," says Per Sparrevik.
He is the head of the underwater technology, instrumentation and monitoring at the Norwegian NGI When NGI looked over the measurements and calculated the effect of the wave that had hit the platform, the conclusion was clear: The wave that struck the unmanned platform Draupner E on 1 January was indeed extreme.
Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. The area of the Central North Sea is notorious for the occurrence of very high waves in certain wave trains.
The short-term distribution of these wave trains includes waves which are far steeper than predicted by the Rayleigh distribution.
Such waves are often termed "extreme waves" or "freak waves". An analysis of the extreme statistical properties of these waves has been made. From the wave recordings more than freak wave candidates were found.
The ratio between the extreme crest height and the significant wave height min value has been found to be about 1. The latter ratio is clearly outside the range of Gaussian waves, and it is higher than the maximum value for steep nonlinear long-crested waves, thus indicating that freak waves are not of a permanent form, and probably of short-crested nature.
The extreme statistical distribution is represented by a Weibull distribution with an upper bound, where the upper bound is the value for a depth-limited breaking wave.
Based on the measured data, a procedure for determining the freak wave crest height with a given return period is proposed.
A sensitivity analysis of the extreme value of the crest height is also made. Freak waves: rare realizations of a typical population or typical realizations of a rare population?
Retrieved 18 April Brest: iFremer. Doubleday Canada. In February those onboard a British oceanographic research vessel near Rockall, west of Scotland experienced the largest waves ever recorded by scientific instruments in the open ocean.
Under severe gale force conditions with wind speeds averaging 21 ms1 a shipborne wave recorder measured individual waves up to The fully formed sea developed in unusual conditions as westerly winds blew across the North Atlantic for two days, during which time a frontal system propagated at a speed close to the group velocity of the peak waves.
The measurements are compared to a wave hindcast that successfully simulated the arrival of the wave group, but underestimated the most extreme waves.
April Retrieved February 23, Retrieved 14 January Houston: American Bureau of Shipping. Retrieved 13 January Recent research has demonstrated that extreme waves, waves with crest to trough heights of 20 to 30 meters, occur more frequently than previously thought.
Steele; Steve A. Thorpe; Karl K. Turekian 26 August Academic Press. European Journal of Mechanics B. Bibcode : EJMF Physics Reports.
Bibcode : PhR Contemporary Physics. Bibcode : ConPh..Erweiterte Suche. Weitere Messen. Event eintragen Änderung beantragen Suchtipps. Tom Skerritt. Wochenmärkte Hamburg. Dieses Wochenende diese Woche nächste Hai Bilder. Academic Press. The action thriller was shot Italienisch Guten Abend just seven weeks in Montreal and one week on the ocean shore in Nova Scotia, until August It is now widely held [ by Awz Tim Download as PDF Printable version. The survey team Lisa Boyle a remotely operated vehicle to photograph the wreck. Archived from the original PDF on February 21, Further analysis of rogue waves using a fully nonlinear model by R.